T13G-2724: A Crystal Stratigraphy Approach to Deciphering the Petrogenesis of the Detroit Seamount

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Authors: Antonio Simonetti, Jesse Davenport, Clive R Neal

Author Institutions: Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, USA

The Detroit Seamount (DSM) erupted ~76-81 Ma ago, and is the northwestern terminus of the Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount chain. The Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount chain has drastically furthered our understanding of how and where mantle plumes originate, the dynamics of interactions between plumes and mantle, and plate movement in the recent past. DSM Basalts from Site 1203 of Leg 197 of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) contain, by rock volume, a large quantity of plagioclase and olivine phenocrysts. Previous investigations into magma chamber processes via phenocryst analysis such as those occurring at the DSM have largely relied solely on major and trace element analyses. However, since both are easily susceptible to post-solidification alteration processes, in this study we are undertaking a multi-faceted approach to deciphering the petrogenetic history of the DSM basalts via crystal stratigraphy, crystal size distributions (CSDs), electron microprobe analysis (EPMA), laser ablation and multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA- and MC-ICP-MS), microdilling and phase separation, and isotope analysis of whole-rock, olivine and plagioclase phenocrysts and their associated melt inclusions. A preliminary Sr isotope and trace element investigation of DSM whole rock basalts from Site 884 yielded a range of values between 0.70262 and 0.70276, as well as MORB-like trace element patterns. Notably, the plagioclase rims analyzed possessed a more radiogenic (87Sr/86Sr)I than the core (0.70361 ± 2 vs. 0.70347 ± 2). Our initial interpretation of this radiogenic increase from core-to-rim was crystal growth in an OIB-rich magma source that was not cogenetic with its matrix. Eight olivine phenocrysts from DSM basalts were analyzed for major elements using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) techniques. Fosterite contents of the olivine phenocrysts range from 84-86. Olivines from basalt sample 10R-4 exhibit a well-defined correlation between Ni and Mn contents, whereas those from sample 10R-3 show a more limited range of Mn and Ni compositions. The trends defined by the data from the olivine phenocrysts clearly suggest that fractional crystallization was not the sole magma differentiation process to have occurred. Rare earth element (REE) abundances for the olivine phenocrysts are low, and generally range from 0.1 to 2 ppm, with those from basalt sample 10R-4 containing higher abundances than sample 10R-3. Melt inclusions from within plagioclase phenocrysts in DSM basalt sample 9R-2 from Site 884 were analyzed via laser ablation-ICP-MS. Results from the analyses indicate that the melt inclusions are LREE-enriched and negatively-sloped compared to the LREE-depleted basalt whole rock compositions from the DSM and the East Pacific Rise. Of interest, the La concentrations in the melt inclusions are notably similar to abundances found for the Manua Kea tholeiites. Trace element data and Sr isotope ratios for both melt inclusions and phenocrysts from the DSM basalts are all indicative of open system behavior and possibly consistent with magma mixing between at least two end-member mantle components.

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